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Professor Stern's figures are in a footnote in the forthcoming article, "We Cannot Make a Silk Purse out of a Sow's Ear: Eugenics in the Hoosier Heartland, 1900-1960" , 103 (March, 2007) (B051015)."I derived the figure of 2, 000 by adding up the 1, 576 sterilizations reported by the Indiana Department of Mental Health for the period 1936 to 1962, the 308 operations listed in the Fort Wayne annual reports for the fiscal years 1927-1928 to 1935-1936 (as complied by ISA archivist Vicki Casteel), the 144 sterilization orders approved by the Muscatatuck Board of Trustees from 1937 to 1953, the 35 sterilizations listed in the Logansport annual reports from 1931 to 1943 (when they appear to end), the 7 salpingectomies listed in the Indiana Girls' School annual reports from 1927 to 1933, and several redacted Fort Wayne patient records listing sterilizations dated 1933 to 1975.(1) Various laws were enacted based on this belief. Frank Hanly approved first state eugenics law making sterilization mandatory for certain individuals in state custody.(3) Sterilizations halted 1909 by Governor Thomas R. (4) Side two: Indiana Supreme Court ruled 1907 law unconstitutional 1921, citing denial of due process under Fourteenth Amendment.(9) Notes: (1) In a paper presented in 1879 to the Social Science Association of Indiana, Harriet Foster claimed that imbeciles and the feeble-minded often inherit their conditions. Mc Culloch claimed his study proved human degradation through heredity. (Bloomington & Indianapolis, 1994), 1341-1342 (B050857). The first three secretaries of the Board of State Charities established heredity as a key to pauperism, crime, and mental problems in official state publications.Foster stated that "intermarriage of consanguineous persons, and intemperance of one or both parents, " are the most frequent reasons certain people have mental problems. Mc Culloch concluded mental weakness, pauperism, licentiousness, and poor morals stemmed from genetics. Each child tends to the same life, reverts when taken out." Oscar C. The author of the article, Robert Horton, then at the Indiana State Archives, claimed, "the rhetoric of Mc Culloch's work is enough to raise suspicions about the quality of his research." A record on Robert Ross in Mc Culloch's book calls Ross a man of low cunning and noted that he "seduced all his daughters and made them his mistresses." A case history of the same man in the Family Service Association of Indianapolis described Ross as a "very industrious sober man, " an assessment that his employer and minister confirmed. During their tenures from 1889 to 1822, , produced quarterly, was filled with constant examples of pauperism, crime, and mental problems being traced to heredity. IUPUI Professor Jason Scott Lantzer has provided citations for the laws passed during this period of time.

From 1943-1963, Indiana conducted 1, 193 sterilizations.There are several other sources that record the number sterilizations that occurred over a short period of time as well. Sharp of the Indiana State Reformatory claimed in a 1909 pamphlet to have sterilized around 500 inmates from 1899 to 1909. Official numbers from this time period are difficult to find, and Osgood's tally has not been verified.These operations took place before and after the 1907 law that legalized the procedure. From the passage of the 1931 law until May 1934, 141 persons were sterilized under the 1931 law. Potter Harshman, "Medical and Legal Aspects of Sterilization in Indiana, " reprinted from the held at New York City, May 26-May 29, 1934 (B050858).Julius Paul, "State Eugenic Sterilization History: A Brief Overview, " Jonas Robitscher, ed., (Springfield, IL, 1973) (B051012).Professor Alexandra Minna Stern of the University of Michigan estimated around 2, 000 people were sterilized under Indiana law.

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